Script & Storyboard
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development identifies eight stages in which a healthy individual should pass through from birth to death. [1] At each stages we encounter different needs, ask new questions and meet people who influence our behavior and learning. [2]
Stage 1: Basic Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy (1-2 years) [1] [only written, not read] As infants we ask ourselves if we can trust the world and we wonder if it's safe. [2] We learn that if we can trust someone now, we can also trust others in the future. [3] If we experience fear, we develop doubt and mistrust. [4] The key to our development is our mother. [5]
Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Early childhood (2-4 years) [1] [only written, not read] In our early childhood, we experience ourselves and discover our body. We ask: is it okay to be me? [2] If we are allowed to discover ourselves, then we develop self-confidence. [3] If we are not, we can develop shame and self-doubt. Both parents now play a major role. [4]
Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt Preschool Age (4-5 years) [1] [only written, not read] In preschool, we take initiative, try out new things, and learn basic principles like how round things roll. [2] We ask: Is it okay for me to do what I do? [3] If we are encouraged, we can follow our interests. [4] If we are held back or told that what we do is silly, we can develop guilt. [5] We are now learning from the entire family. [6]
Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority School Age (5-12 years) [1] [only written, not read] Now we discover our own interests and realize that we are different from others. We want to show that we can do things right. [2] We ask if we can make it in this world? [2] If we receive recognition from our teachers or peers we become industrious, which is another word for hard-working. [4] If we get too much negative feedback, we start to feel inferior and lose motivation. [5] Our neighbors and schools now influence us the most. [6]
Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence (13-19 years) [1] [only written, not read] During adolescence we learn that we have different social roles. We are friends, students, children and citizens. [2] Many experience an identity crises. [3] If our parents now allow us to go out and explore, we can find identity. [4] If they push us to conform to their views, we can face role confusion and feel lost. [5] Key to our learning are our peers and role models.[6]
Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation Early Adulthood (20-40 years) [1] [only written, not read] As young adults we slowly understand who we are and we start to let go of the relationships we had built earlier in order to fit in. [2] We ask ourselves if we can love? [3] If we can make a long-term commitment, we are confident and happy. [4] If we cannot form intimate relationships, we might end up feeling isolated and lonely. [5] Our friends and partners are now center to our development. [6]
Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation Adulthood (40-65 years) [1] [only written, not read] When we reach our forties we become comfortable, use our leisure time creatively and maybe begin contributing to society. [2] Our concern is Generativity. If we think that we are able to lead the next generation into this world, we are happy. [3] If we did not resolve some conflicts earlier, we can become pessimistic and experience stagnation. [4] People at home and at work are now who influence us most. [5]
Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs. Despair Maturity (65 - death) [1] [only written, not read] As we grow older we tend to slow down and begin to look back over our lives. We ask: how have I done? [2] If we think we did well, we develop feelings of contentment and integrity. [3] If not, we can experience despair and become grumpy and bitter. [4] Time to compare us with mankind. [5]
Erik Erikson was a German-American psychologist who together with his wife Joan, became known for his work on psychosocial development. [1] He was influenced by Sigmund and Anna Freud and became famous for coining the phrase "identity crisis." [2] Although Erikson lacked even a bachelors degree, he served as a professor at Harvard and Yale. [3]
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